Last week, the ASC LLM Team ran a workshop on referencing. This video is a brief overview of what was covered:
This post will particularly focus on how to cross-reference.
There will be a moment during the course of your work where you will want to refer back to an earlier citation. Bear in mind, that footnotes are numerically ordered e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 etc…
A long time ago, when I was an undergraduate student, I didn’t know this. I submitted a piece of coursework where every time I referred back to an earlier footnote, I would write 1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5, 1, 2, 1. Of course this is wrong and it’s terribly confusing for marker!!!
Learning to cross-reference is an important skill. So, how do you go about it? Imagine that you need to reference the following piece of text:
In footnote 3, you would like to refer back to the citation you made in footnote 1. Type in the surname, brackets with an ‘n’ in them, plus page number that you want to refer to. For
In the space before closing the brackets, click the cursor (I’ve highlighted this in yellow above). This will be where you want your cross-reference.
Then you will need to navigate to the ‘insert’ menu at the top of Microsoft Word and choose ‘cross-reference’.
OR, if you navigate to the ‘Reference’ tab, and click the ‘cross-reference’ icon.
A small menu will appear. It should look something like this (note: this will vary a little bit depending on the operating system you use e.g. Mac or Windows).
Where it says ‘Reference type’ at the top of this menu box, you need to make sure you choose ‘footnote’ from the drop down menu, otherwise you will not be able to see the list of footnotes generated (this is where the top red arrow is pointing!)
The menu box will then show you the footnotes that you have made. Choose the footnote that you want in this little menu bar. This will then be highlighted in blue, as you can see from the second red arrow above. If you then click ‘insert’, the cross reference number will be generated for you.
This is handy for a lengthy piece of work because when you need to insert new footnotes, the numbers for the cross-references will change for you. Please note that not all computers do this automatically. You may need to ‘force’ it to refresh by clicking ‘print’ or ‘print preview’. However, you do not need to print the item, as long as you receive the printing menu up, you can press ‘cancel’ but Word will refresh these cross-references for you.
It’s a really cool function, as it means you don’t have to go back and put every number in manually afterwards! Hypothetically, if I added a new sentence which needed a new reference, it would look like this.
With the cross-referencing function in Word, it will change the footnote numbering. It should then look something like this:
A Final Note:
I like to keep rough drafts of coursework saved as different files. That way I can track my progress with work. Or I sometimes use a clean Word document to write a separate section of my work to copy and paste into the longer file at a later stage. If using cross-referencing, you will need to be careful because Word doesn’t always recognise these points and it is not foolproof!!! Within your footnotes you may receive the notification ‘n error bookmark not defined’. If that is the case, you will need to revise and check the citation manually, as you may have accidentally deleted the original footnote you were referring to!
For further information on cross-referencing, see:
- OSCOLA (4th edition, Hart 2012) 5-6. Available online: https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/research-subject-groups/publications/oscola
- Microsoft Office (for PCs): https://support.office.com/en-GB/article/Create-a-cross-reference-300b208c-e45a-487a-880b-a02767d9774b
- Microsoft Office (for Macs): https://support.office.com/en-gb/article/Create-or-update-a-cross-reference-aa35c606-34e8-4c64-b6eb-c6321d190645