Last week, the ASC LLM Team ran a workshop on referencing. This video is a brief overview of what was covered:

This post will particularly focus on how to cross-reference.

There will be a moment during the course of your work where you will want to refer back to an earlier citation. Bear in mind, that footnotes are numerically ordered e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 etc…

A long time ago, when I was an undergraduate student, I didn’t know this. I submitted a piece of coursework where every time I referred back to an earlier footnote, I would write 1, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5, 1, 2, 1. Of course this is wrong and it’s terribly confusing for marker!!!

Learning to cross-reference is an important skill. So, how do you go about it? Imagine that you need to reference the following piece of text:


Step 1)

In footnote 3, you would like to refer back to the citation you made in footnote 1. Type in the surname, brackets with an ‘n’ in them, plus page number that you want to refer to. For



In the space before closing the brackets, click the cursor (I’ve highlighted this in yellow above). This will be where you want your cross-reference.

Step 2)

Then you will need to navigate to the ‘insert’ menu at the top of Microsoft Word and choose ‘cross-reference’.

Screen Shot 2016-10-24 at 13.14.23.png

OR, if you navigate to the ‘Reference’ tab, and click the ‘cross-reference’ icon.

Screen Shot 2016-10-24 at 13.14.18.png


A small menu will appear. It should look something like this (note: this will vary a little bit depending on the operating system you use e.g. Mac or Windows).

Screen Shot 2016-10-24 at 13.42.40.pngWhere it says ‘Reference type’ at the top of this menu box, you need to make sure you choose ‘footnote’ from the drop down menu, otherwise you will not be able to see the list of footnotes generated (this is where the top red arrow is pointing!)

The menu box will then show you the footnotes that you have made. Choose the footnote that you want in this little menu bar. This will then be highlighted in blue, as you can see from the second red arrow above. If you then click ‘insert’, the cross reference number will be generated for you.

Step 3)

This is handy for a lengthy piece of work because when you need to insert new footnotes, the numbers for the cross-references will change for you. Please note that not all computers do this automatically. You may need to ‘force’ it to refresh by clicking ‘print’ or ‘print preview’. However, you do not need to print the item, as long as you receive the printing menu up, you can press ‘cancel’ but Word will refresh these cross-references for you.

It’s a really cool function, as it means you don’t have to go back and put every number in manually afterwards! Hypothetically, if I added a new sentence which needed a new reference, it would look like this.


With the cross-referencing function in Word, it will change the footnote numbering. It should then look something like this:

Screen Shot 2016-10-24 at 13.51.10.png

A Final Note:

I like to keep rough drafts of coursework saved as different files. That way I can track my progress with work. Or I sometimes use a clean Word document to write a separate section of my work to copy and paste into the longer file at a later stage. If using cross-referencing, you will need to be careful because Word doesn’t always recognise these points and it is not foolproof!!! Within your footnotes you may receive the notification ‘n error bookmark not defined’. If that is the case, you will need to revise and check the citation manually, as you may have accidentally deleted the original footnote you were referring to!

For further information on cross-referencing, see:





Using Microsoft Word – Referencing

This is a basic guide to useful Microsoft Word features when using OSCOLA referencing, the referencing system used for the UWE LLM course. It is intended to be a basic introduction, with helpful tips and links. It is strongly recommended that you become familiar with OSCOLA as early in the course as possible, as this will save you many hours of frustration when trying to reference.

  • OSCOLA Referencing

The first thing to know is that there is no automatic way of inserting OSCOLA referencing. Instead, each time you wish to cite a source, you must put a footnote after the point you wish to make.[1] To do this, simply click on the ‘References’ tab on the top bar, then click ‘Insert Footnote’:


You can then type in any information which you wish to include. In terms of OSCOLA referencing, the best way of finding out how to reference particular sources is to refer directly to the OSCOLA guides. The full guide can be found here.

If you haven’t used OSCOLA before, it is best to familiarise yourself with it by using the full guide to begin with. There are a number of nuances, such as where commas go or if a comma is used, that you will need to be familiar with. If you know OSCOLA fairly well and simply need to refresh your memory for a particular source, there is a quick guide here.

Under the OSCOLA referencing system, the format of a reference is different in the Bibliography from footnotes, therefore make sure you have double-checked your references are correct for both styles. For example, a source in the Bibliography begins [Surname] [Initial] for the author, whereas in a footnote the author is listed as [Full first name] [Surname]:

Elizabeth Fisher, Risk Regulation and Administrative Constitutionalism (Hart Publishing 2007) – footnote                                                                

Fisher E, Risk Regulation and Administrative Constitutionalism (Hart Publishing 2007) – Bibliography [2]

Bibliographies take a specific format, that is a table of cases, a table of legislation, then the bibliography. UWE’s example OSCOLA bibliography can be found here. (This is a PDF download, you will find it in your downloads folder after clicking the link)

As with footnotes, there is no automatic way to build a Bibliography in Word. Instead, best practice is to keep a full list of all sources you have used during your research, either in a separate document or at the end of your work, to include as a Bibliography after the main text of your assignment.

  • Formatting

Under the OSCOLA referencing system, quotes have to be formatted in a particular manner. If the quote is less than three lines long, ‘[i]ncorporate quotations of up to three lines into the text, within single quotation marks’.[3] Where a quotation is longer than three lines, it must be presented as fully indented:

Present quotations longer than three lines in an indented paragraph, with no further indentation of the first line (examples 3 and 4). Do not use quotation marks, except for single quotation marks around quotations within quotations (example 3). Leave a line space either side of the indented quotation.[4]

The easiest way of ensuring consistency of formatting throughout a document is to create a new “style”. To do this, go to the ‘Home’ tab and under ‘Styles’ sub-tab select the drop down arrow and ‘Create a style’:


This will bring up a text box. Select ‘Modify’:


This will then bring up a number of options for creating your own style of text formats. Firstly, choose a name you will remember, eg ‘OSCOLA quotes’. Under ‘Formatting’, you will then see that there is an option ‘Format’ which brings up a drop down menu:


Select ‘Paragraph’ and under ‘Indentations’ change this to the margins you wish to use for your OSCOLA quotes:


Select ‘New documents based on this template’ and then click ‘OK’:


  • Contents and Indexing

The other feature which you may find it useful to know, particularly for longer pieces of research, is how to create an index or contents page. Word does have tools which will allow you to do both automatically. Huge detail won’t be provided here as these are unlikely to be useful to you at LLM level, but you should be aware of these for future academic work.

To create an index, go to ‘References’ then ‘Insert Index’:


For a full guide on how to use this feature, you can use the Microsoft support page.

Under ‘References’ you will also find ‘Table of Contents’:


Again, there is a Microsoft support page where you will find full details of how to use this feature.

You will quickly find, as you begin to research and use references, the most common features that you need to use in Word. There are full guides available online for all of Word’s features, so it is always worth Googling if you have a problem, but it is also worth familiarising yourself with this before the pressures of coursework begin.

[1] Like this!

[2] Example taken from the full OSCOLA guide

[3] Full OSCOLA guide, 8

[4] Full OSCOLA guide, 8